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 The education system in Egypt

Understanding the nature of the system of education prevailing in any state is a condition essential to the success of any attempt to reform or renewal, and renewal and reform has become something necessary as witnessed by the world of changes and challenges in all patterns of life , which summon the change and development continuing in education because it is a pillar of the basic progress and renaissance for any society Civilized or seeking civilization .

So , this chapter came to present a historical overview and then deals with the different stages of education according to the Egyptian educational ladder , and you can also learn about the new education system in Egypt .

1- Historical background

Has not been in Egypt until the early century , the nineteenth ten only system of education one represented in Koranic schools to the side of mosques and institutes that were offering education and religious have made this system the role of historic important in preserving the culture of Arab Islamic and dissemination .

Began the march of education in Egypt in the decade the first km century IX th where the link between the policies of educational and development and for the first time in history with took Muhammad to rule the year 1805 enter the system of education and began to establish peace education in the pyramid inverts the start of the schools upper and then the rest of the stages of sequence and it needs society in that period, and then came his successors have not given Abbas and happy attention to education even came Ishmael and saw the attention of a great education but as a result of borrowing and loans and to enter Egypt in the problems of financial confined efforts educational until the arrival of the occupation British in the era of reconciliation which was the main concern of education for the job and was the first project Fikri appeared in Egypt , a project on Mubarak in 1867 , called Regulation Rajab then came the Constitution of 1923 , which the text on that education is compulsory for the Egyptians and then the emergence of the university government , " the University of the Egyptian " , which was the idea in 1908 in the era of occupation - and this reminds Egyptians sigh for the first time show the idea of the University with the lack of stability political and under colonization - usually universities arise with the presence of the stability of a political , economic and social .

And it established the university already in 1925 and accompanied by a number of universities, so came the revolution in 1952 , which was aimed at the development of economic and social in Egypt than through education and the issuance of the Constitution of 1971 , which stressed on the education right for every citizen and the emergence of a number of laws in that period until the nineties , which set the goals of learning in Education for excellence and excellence for all and we entered the millennium new goal basic democratic education and the development of strategies for new reform system education as a whole even came revolution 25 January 2011 , which was a revolution on the situation of political , economic and social , including also a revolution to reform education and easing the burden on the shoulders of the family of the Egyptian will show days and date what are Educational reforms that emerged after the revolution .

This is what will be explained to clarify the different educational stages , their laws and their development, and the following figure shows the educational ladder of the Arab Republic of Egypt .

2. stage of the pre - school :

The philosophy of education is pre - school on the growth of the integrated child 's in the stage of childhood roller with taking into account the differences of individual in the capacity and preparedness tendencies .

Education is pre - school choice includes every house or school is sponsored by the children before the age of six .

Located institutions of education are pre - school outside of peace education and this is not borne by the state responsible for spending them but rather are considered within the services of social, divided into :

  1. The role of nursery , a place devoted to the care of children who have not attained the age of six peer subscription monthly .
  2. Kindergarten children : system of education attend a school official or private and accepts children from the age of four until the age of six expenses vary from school to another and supervised by the Ministry of Education and Education at this stage of through the administration of public for kindergarten children from through the development plans of study , curricula and equipment and follow - up work .  

 It has focused on the institutions of educational preparation teacher kindergarten children where he established the Division of Studies Childhood Faculty of Girls ' Ain Shams in 1975 and then became a department independent in 1980.

Also established the people of kindergarten children faculties of education in Tanta and Mansoura As a result , to meet the requirements on the quality of education was the establishment of the faculties of kindergarten children in Cairo and Alexandria and the people of kindergarten children at the Faculty of Education quality .  

3- Basic Education :

Known as education basic in Egypt on the sigh stage of education represents education compulsory and free in schools , the government , which provides for all citizens , boys and girls in rural areas and the ban , and represents a reduction necessary of education , which is characterized as much of the flexibility and working to achieve the growth of the integrated pupil in all aspects of personal and that of by providing it Fundamentals of knowledge, skills, theoretical and applied experiences , trends and behaviors

Play stage primary role important in the system of education , The period that spent by the child in the school is the most dangerous periods of his life , in that stage age are learned and acquired in a while and the quality of the school rooted in his mind and ment consists of friendly ability to face the society and the life process and continue instruction either on the basis of true Or on the basis of a mistake .

All the problems of educational and Acunnina say also psychological , health and social that we suffer from the students in the stage of secondary and university are all the foundations laid him from the stage of primary and unfortunately in countries developing , including Egypt , not given officials attention to that stage , which affects the stages following them .

Issued several laws interesting stage of the pre - education university , the Constitution of 1956 and the Constitution of 1964 and the Constitution of 1971    

They acknowledged that education is a right for all Egyptians and that it is compulsory in the primary stage and free of charge in all stages .

To regulate primary education , several laws emerged,including :

* Law No. 210 of 1953 which is the first law to regulate the education of primary making it compulsory free from sixth to second ten may pupil after class Alrata entry phase prep .

* Law No. 213 of 1956 and passed this law to eliminate duplication of existing between the school , elementary and middle school and became a primary 6 years .

* Law 68 of 1968 and the education of primary right for all children and to determine the age of entry and years of study in six years , curricula and systems exam .

* Law No. 139 of 1981 faithful were the abolition of laws prior to him and extended the obligation to include the stage of primary and middle school , which has become the stage of one under the name of education primary and in 1988 shortened the stage of primary to five years instead of six years .

* Law No. 12 of 1996 on the protection of the child and care of health , social and educational than through the supervision of the Ministry of Education and Education .  

* Law No. 53 of 1999 amending the provisions of Law 139 of 1981 and the faithful made for compulsory in education the basic nine years instead of eight after the return of the year sixth , and apply it to each of the enrolled grade first primary of the year 1999/2000.

Basic education is divided into :

1 - the first ( elementary ) cycle : a mandatory six - year period, free of charge, and divided into :

* The first grades from the first to the third : the aim of which is the child's acquisition of basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic .

* Rows the last of the fourth to sixth : aims to ensure the skills of basic and above and obtained by the child in grades first .

2 - the second cycle ( preparatory stage ): for a period of three compulsory free of charge and divided into :

* Preparatory General : The aim is to provide students with scientific and cultural information to continue their education in the secondary stage .

* Preparative professional : cares exercises professional work and production and attend these schools who repeat their failure in grade first and second intermediate .

* Preparatory education special : such as schools of light for the blind and schools to maintain the sight , schools and classes of education intellectual .

Goals and philosophy of education basic :

The philosophy of education basic in Egypt is thought educational in the field of education of children to take the skills and experiences and aspects of theoretical and cognitive and the basics of culture and identity , nationalism for all members of society to ensure the education constant over the life and development of the student mentally , intellectually and technology and armaments viable citizenship , values , religious , ethical and contribute to the development of their homeland .

Aims of education basic to the development of the capacities and preparation of students and satisfy their interests and provide them to the extent necessary to the values , behaviors and knowledge of scientific and professional , which conform to the conditions of environments different so can those be phased education basic to continue instruction in the stage of higher and face life after the training of professional intensive and that the order to prepare the individual in order to Be a productive citizen in his environment and society .

Types of schools :

1- governmental : the government supervises and finances it and is divided into :

A - Governmental schools that teach curricula in the Arabic language .

B - Governmental language schools that teach mathematics and science in a foreign language , in addition to teaching a foreign language .

2. Schools Private : non - free , and the king of individuals or institutions , but supervised by the Ministry of Education and Education administratively .

3- Foreign schools : They are affiliated with the embassies of foreign countries and are not affiliated with the Egyptian Ministry of Education , and their curricula and content belong to foreign countries .

Curriculum and methods of teaching and assessment :

- Plan study and courses of study :

In line with the philosophy of education basic , the student studying in the episode the first of education primary ( school elementary ) education and religious ( three shares in the week ) , language and Arabic (12 share a week ) that except for grade IV and V (11 share ) and the line of the Arab Hstan in the week that except grade IV and V ( share one ) and math (6 servings ) , and science studies and social for each of them Hstan in the week starting from row fourth replace them in rows remaining material activities and educational skills and scientific (10 servings ) , education and sports , artistic and musical skills and practical for each of them Hstan in week starting from grade IV , language and foreign (3 servings ) ranging from grade IV and finally share a library for all the ranks of the school shall be the total number of shares in each of the rows first , second and third (34 share a week ) and in grades fourth and fifth (38 share per week ) and notes the skills vernacular includes four areas , namely the field of agricultural field of trade and the field of industrial , economy , domestic , and choose each school two areas only from among these areas , in the light of the circumstances of the environment that there is a school , with taking into account that Leader of the girls field of economy , domestic as essential .

Education preparatory

The preparatory school was introduced in 1953, with the aim of preparing the means of development for pupils and identifying the talents and tendencies of students and to face the next stage of education , which is the secondary stage . The duration of the study by four years and passed the law for students who have completed the study in grade fourth primary enrollment in education secondary and then the grade first preparatory was featuring students from grade fourth , fifth and sixth primary law of the year 1957 amendment to the law of the former and it became a period of study 3 years instead of four was there Two types of preparatory schools :

1- General Preparatory School

2- Technical Preparatory ( industrial, agricultural, commercial, and female )

 In the year 1962/1963 Technical Preparatory School was transformed into modern preparatory schools .

In the year 1968 it became a school junior and one only .

 The goal of the preparatory stage :

Preparing students mentally and physically and morally , socially , nationally and disclosure of their interests and abilities and development to be able to continue to study at the stage of secondary or technical each according to his abilities .

Curricula, teaching methods and evaluation :

The preparatory stage includes the following materials :

1- Religious education .

2. Language Arabic calligraphy .

3- The foreign language .

4- Social subjects ( history, geography, and national education ).

5- Mathematics : arithmetic - algebra - geometry .

6- Science and health .

7- Art Education .

8. Education sports .

9- Music .

10- Scientific and applied fields .

 The scientific and applied fields are canceled and the study became only theoretical . As for teaching methods by ancient means , indoctrination is the basis for the teacher's method of teaching with the use of laboratories in the narrowest limits .

Calendar of through :

* The work of the year and the tests that are conducted monthly during the school year .

* The two semester exams .

Education Community :

In the context of the legal education of primary compulsory it focused plan five year 1992/1997 and plan the following (1997- 2002) to develop a strategy to achieve the education of primary education in all parts of the country , especially developing and disadvantaged places that are difficult to access to Ami 1992 schools community and in 1993 schools Chapter one .

(1) One- semester schools :

Established decision Ministerial No. 255 of 1993 and is considered the pattern of patterns of education VARYING education regulars in the ring primary goal of providing an opportunity for the education of girls who are not enrolled in education , basic or drop - outs .

* Attended by girls from the age of 8 to 14 years .

* The start of the project the number of 313 schools in 1993/1994 reached the 2612 school year 2000/2001 came to about three thousand schools in 2011/2012 form No.

* In contrast , the number of girls studying increased to more than seven thousand girls .

It characterized those schools flexibility where can enroll girls school class one by rows that already to have completed her studies . If you were leaked from education - and that there is flexibility in the dates of study Vthdd according to the conditions of the environment and local and be holidays official are days combined , holidays and markets .

The period of study is five years, but it may be reduced to three classes according to the mental and academic level of the study .

Duration of the study 34 weeks and the activities of special projects production decision ministerial No. 62 for the year 1997 allocation of separation in schools prep nearby from gatherings schools Chapter one .

The calendar in the same method followed in the episode first of education primary .

(2) Community Schools :

Began in 1992 from through n = participation between the Ministry of Education and Education and the Organization of UNICEF and the objective of which education is good for all focused on the areas most deprived of education to start the establishment of four schools of the villages of Assiut reached to 201 schools in 2001 Bhafezat Assiut , Sohag and Qena .

* Include children in the class age from 6-12 years old and can be included greater than that are not .

* Uses a learning active and focuses on the acquisition and development of skills of life and solving problems related to the environment as a basis for learning constant over the life .

* Do not increase the number of children among 30 children .

* Gets graduates of schools of Chapter One and the schools community on the certificate of completion of the study phase of primary and can for its graduates attend school government regular or junior technical .

* The number of students in one- class schools and community schools reached about 101,177 students in 2011/2012, and the number of classes in those schools increased to 4,624 schools in 2011/2012.

4- Secondary education :

Called the name of education secondary on the stage of Central in education , a stage that follows stage basic ( primary and secondary ) and precedes the stage upper and university, which is concerned with chip age important is the period of youth and early understanding of the future of any society where the power of human , which is working on the renaissance of society , a period that determines the course of the individual in the future, so it occupies rank important and the importance of special in peace education and often what includes education two main two :

* General secondary education that aims to prepare students for enrollment in universities and higher institutes .

* Technical secondary education that aims to prepare the skilled workers and technicians necessary for the development of society .

Objectives of general secondary education :

Aims to prepare students for life side - to - side with preparing them for the education of higher and university participation in the life of public emphasis on the consolidation of the values of religious and behavioral nationalism .

Hence , it can be said that high school has a number of functions and goals that it seeks to achieve in order to prepare individuals who are able to play an effective social role in society while fulfilling the personal requirements of the individual to achieve social adjustment .

 It is here the education of secondary importance within the system of education and issued a number of laws to regulate which :

 * Law No. 211 of 1953 regulating education secondary , both preparatory and secondary .

* Law of the year 1957 the separation of education preparatory and became the education of secondary stage independent .

* Law No. 139 of 1981 Select a place of education secondary to sigh stage of the center or the stage of the second after education basic and precedes the education of university .

* Law No. 2 of 1994 for school education secondary three years and accept holding the certificate prep so that no more than age from 17 years old first October applicant identifies each province total , which enrolled by students who obtained the certificate Prep The owners of aggregates is high are directed schools , secondary and technical .

It is here education is secondary is divided into :

1- General Secondary .

2- Technical secondary ( industrial - agricultural - commercial - five- year system )

3- Vocational secondary .

(1) General secondary education :

Year school in grade first general for all students on to be obtained on the certificate of completion of the study of secondary public on two stages the first in a row the second secondary and second in Grade III and pass a student at the stage of their exam at the end of the year ( May ) and the deposit or absent with an excuse to enter the month of August after cancellation system optimization , but with the revolution of January 2011 changed the system in general academic 2012/2013 and the student entering the exam year , the third secondary only to obtain a certificate of completion of the study secondary .

Courses of study :

The decisions until the issuance of the law in 2012.

The first class is shared for all students .

Grade II taught the students :

* Material compulsory : religion, language of Arabic, the language of foreign, a language foreign second, mathematics, education sports 

* Material applied optional such as : education of art, music, economy home, the field of commercial, agricultural, industrial, computer to any

In the third row :

* Material compulsory : religion , the language of Arabic , the language of a foreign first , education nationwide , raising sports .

* Materials are optional : the student to choose three items from among the totals of scientific or literary condition should not be have tested in one of them in a row the second .

- Group Scientific : Chemistry , neighborhoods , physics , mathematics , geology .

- Group literature : history , geography , economics , and statistics , philosophy , science psychology .

* High- level subjects : Arabic language , foreign language , mathematics , biology , geography , philosophy , and logic .

Teaching and evaluation methods :

The methods of teaching the process of indoctrination is not showing the participation of students in the search for information or the development of thinking critically have Dependence all on the book school , which replaced the notes get them from through lessons Privacy to make it easier to save and it is evaluating the student on over two scholarships for Grade II and III and the total of these two examinations consists of the total final , which is determined on the basis of the fate of the student .

The achievement exam measures the student’s ability to memorize information, and then the exam became a means to enable the student to pass it and achieve the largest total .

 In the year 2012 after the revolution of 25 January 2011 issued Resolution Ministerial No. 274 amending the system of secondary general and she came back once again to the year one only in the public school 2012-2013 so as to be grade the first secondary year is divided into two semesters to be there materials continuous studying throughout the year and divided subjects between the chapters I and II and examines the student in Chapter II as he tested them in the first which materials are added to the total : the language of Arabic, the language of a foreign first, the language of a foreign second, mathematics and materials are not added to the total namely education , religious education and national and computer automated, materials ends study the end of the chapter school Namely :

* First group : biology, chemistry, and history .

* A second group : Philosophy - Physics - Geography

Material Education sports have exam practical and add to the total . Activities picks activity one and her exam practical and material success and failure .

- Grade II : class act and evaluates to two semesters : materials are added to the total : the language of Arabic, the language of a foreign first, the language of a foreign second, mathematics, materials are not added to the total : Educational religious : citizenship and human rights, technology information and chooses the student a Divisions scientific or literary materials Division scientific ( Chemistry, neighborhoods ) Physics, mechanics, Division of literary ( the history and science of the same group first , geography , philosophy and logic, Group II material Education Sports material success and failure and hold her exam practical and added to the total .

 - the activities of educational and chooses the material one is not added to the total, education professional and is divided into ( technology and industrial technology , agricultural, technology management business and projects ).

The third year : It is divided into four sections : scientific sciences, scientific sports, literature and arts, literature and business administration. The subject of thinking skills and technology shall be added .

On this afternoon a number of experiments Egyptian to develop the education of secondary general of through the introduction of methods and experiences the world such as England and the US United America and the other from the countries of these experiences .

* Experience school high overall year 1978/1979 aims to provide the student to the extent appropriate to the values and studies theoretical and applied and established two schools Chamltan in Tanta and Sohag and then increased to four schools in four provinces remained the experience did not come out to come into existence .

 * Experience schools Secondary Experimental : back its roots in 1957 and established in Cairo and Alexandria and then increased to five schools other and enter the decisions of professional , industrial , commercial and feminist and reached the number of schools uncle 85/86 about 13 schools , but that this experience has not permeated .

* Experimental sports schools in 1988: Establishing experimental sports high schools in each portfolio aimed at developing students' athletic talents and improving their level of motor performance .

* Schools secondary experimental preparatory 1988: the goal of which prepare students to attend colleges specializing in the preparation of teachers in the education of technical or education musical or economy home, then filter this experiment in 1992 and converted to schools secondary public

* Experience care of the outstanding year 1979 goal , including the selection of students excelling in accordance with the criteria laid and put them in classes or schools , especially to follow up on their superiority and already to open the school excelling high into the sun to add a number as to the number of classes for students excelling and increased the number of classes excelling in school secondary , but it did not Graduated creative or innovative .

2- Technical Secondary Education :

Aims of education art in Egypt to prepare graduate Atlk knowledge and skills of high consistent with the standards of national skills and thus available to the friendly ability to improve its level of vocational , social and academic , technological and adapt to market work .

Technical secondary education is divided into :

1- Industrial . 2- Agricultural . 3- Commercial .

In Egypt, there are some pioneering experiences in the field of technical education , including :

* School art advanced technology maintenance system of five years in Nasr and accepted from all the provinces do not exceed the density of separation in which 30 students .

* Advanced Technical School for Information Technology in Ismailia : The class size does not exceed 2 students .

* Mubarak - Cole Project : An agreement between Egypt and Germany in February 1992 , aimed at providing technical workers trained on scientific grounds using the creation of educational methods and technology .  

- Decisions of Education Secondary Technical : studying student school secondary art materials culture general include language Arabic , mathematics , science and other of materials and materials of art theory and scientific , and these materials are related to the type of education and specialization to the side of the exercises professional .

 It includes education of industrial on the disciplines of multiple including : electricity , decoration , advertising and coordination , radio , clothes ready - made , combinations of mechanical , automotive , trade furniture and knitwear automated . Either education agricultural it includes disciplines such as : Division General , Division of Trustees of laboratories and reclamation land and mechanization of agricultural production and animal , and includes education business disciplines such as : Division general , procurement and stores , transactions business , insurance business , affairs hotel , banks , management of ports and services marine and computer automation .

Has the ministry by developing some disciplines in the education of technical , as was the introduction of decision Computer E in the courses of study education secondary technical industrial and commercial . In addition to the decisions of the Security industrial and management of projects and small , have been characterized by those decisions flexible and adapt to the conditions of the environment and the needs of society ,  

Has allocated 29% of the hours plan for the decisions of the culture of public , either courses of technical theory has ranged the ratio is between 25% , 34% according to the type of specialization , has been allocated for training professional is between 37% , 46% according to the type of specialization , this in addition to the student receives A two - week summer training, at a rate of six hours per day, in factories and production sites .

As Edjat specialties and other schools of secondary industrial namely , the mechanics of spinning , mechanics textile , power electric , equipment control and maintenance of computer automation .

To keep pace with the progress of scientific developments and technological rapid the Ministry of Education and Education to develop plans of study in schools and technical terms has been the introduction of some disciplines new , such as maintenance of elevators , maintenance of appliances , medical , computing machinery and software , network information , systems control , equipment and heavy - Secretarial - Management Business and Marketing .

- Evaluation system : It is based on official examinations only or measuring memorization, so there is no link between theory and practice until the entry of students to the different specializations is done on the basis of their group in middle school and not on the basis of their desires and is held at the end of the third grade of secondary education, a general examination of two rounds that gives successful students ( diploma schools and technical system of the past three ) and determines the specialization , and hold the exam at the end of grade V gives Achievers the diploma schools and technical system of the past five determines the specialization .

3- Vocational High Schools :

Enroll their students holding a junior professional and the duration of the study by three years and a number of schools , vocational 2112 which is attached to schools secondary and here became a school of secondary technical schools working under the management of one the same members of staff teaching and laboratory facilities and burden .

4- The education system at Al-Azhar :

Managed system of education in which through the Council Supreme Affairs Al - Azhar , a separate itself from the Ministry of Education and follows the Prime Minister

Al- Azhar schools are usually called institutes and include the following stages :

* Primary : six years

* Prep : three years

* Secondary : Three years

Studying student resources legitimacy beside the material life and separates students from the students at all stages of study and publish institutes of Al - Azhar in all parts of Egypt and enrolled after the student to teach undergraduate at the University of Al - Azhar .

It display the previous system the educational phase of the pre - university , we find that there are a lot of shortcomings led to the aggravation of the problems of educational which led necessarily to the problems of social and economic ones on , for example :

* The concept of development of education is suffering from confusion and intervention , which led to the so - called on the changes in the stages of education what is the only change or reliance or modified .

* Planning usually are without categories benefiting already , such as the teacher or gone up or the student himself .

* Lack of commitment to the scientific foundations and planning models for global development .

* The absence of a clear educational philosophy , lack of a complete understanding of reality, and reliance on the policy of individuals ( ministers ) rather than institutions . Each minister has a completely new strategy .

* The school curricula are theoretical and not linked to the life of the student and are collective and based on indoctrination and memorization .

* Considering the total of grades and age are the main criteria in the admission process from one stage to another .

* Non - Mjod system for guidance and direction of education for students , especially at the stage of secondary when Altsaib .

* Duplication in education is between the general and technical and between the government and special , and special and special languages and ...... lead all to the problems of social serious and differentiation of cultural depending on the layer of economic which threatens the unity of society .

* Most of the amendments were on the systems of exams and with it all had complained and not guaranteed is still conservation and the ability to measure what remembers the student is the target main exams , which cause problems of social about through lessons Privacy .

* The problem of funding and the deficit of material capabilities and resources may lead to the failure of innovative experiments or any attempts to develop .

* High intensity classes in stage primary may reach the number of students in the class to 60 students in addition to the existence of a system on the school two or three periods .

* Mansions in buildings school a number of them do not fit in addition to the number of other non - built for the purposes of educational or educational addition to buildings and other doomed to fall .

* Methods of teaching that based on memorization only and that the teacher 's transmitter effective and what the student 's only reception only .

These were examples only on the obstacles , and there is a lot that can be talking curse you , the student , either because you are a teacher or because you are a student at those stages in a period earlier .

6. Phase university :

Divided into : Mussat education high government , including universities , academies , institutes graduate , institutes and technical medium , and institutions especially high .

(1) Universities :

  The universities are the heart of the system of education higher, the number of universities , governmental Egyptian (18) University of containing the 418 faculty and these universities are :

   * Cairo University : It was established in 1908 and includes 43 colleges .

   * University of Ain Shams : Established in 1942 with 27 faculty .

   * University of Assiut : Established in 1950 with 17 faculty .

   * Tanta University : Established in 1972 and includes 18 colleges .

   * University of Mansoura : established in 1972 and comprises 23 faculty .

   * University of Zagazig : established in 1974 and comprises 30       faculty .

   * Helwan University : established in 1974 and includes 18 colleges 

   * University of Minya : established in 1976 and comprises 16 faculty .

   * Menoufia University : It was established in 1976 and includes 22 colleges .

   * South Valley University : It was established in 1994 and includes 22 colleges .

   * Beni Suef University : Independently from Cairo University in 2005 and includes 8 faculties .

   * University of Fayoum : I resigned from the University of Cairo in 2005 and comprises 14 faculty .

   * Kafr El Sheikh University : Independently from Tanta University in 2006 and includes 8 faculties .

   * University of Banha : I resigned from the University of Zagazig in 2005 and comprises 14 faculty .

   * Sohag University : Independently from South Valley University in 2006, it includes 8 faculties .

Vary the number of enrolled in this university where he occupies the University of Cairo , the largest number of students enrolled and the members of the body of teaching , bringing the number of members and their assistants to 10 916 and a share of a member of staff teaching (11) students and female students .

(2) Academies :

It awards bachelor's degrees and postgraduate certificates , which are :

A - Sadat Academy for Administrative Sciences : It was established in 1981.

B - The Academy of Arts, established in 1959.

C - The Arab Academy for Science and Technology, established in 1970.

Higher Institutes : 

The number of these institutes is five colleges and institutes of the Ministry of Higher Education :

A - The College of Industrial Education in Cairo was established in 1989.

B - The College of Industrial Education , Beni Suef, established in 1992.

C - The Higher Institute of Management and Computer in Port Said in 1995.

D - Higher Institute of Technology in Banha in 1988.

E - The Higher Institute of Energy in Aswan, Benha in 1989.

 Intermediate Technical Institutes :

These institutes arose out of the development of vocational training centers that spread in 1956 and accept holders of high school to prepare them technically and professionally, and the period of study was one year, then these centers were developed to become medium technical institutes with an increase in the period of study in them to two years in 1966, and their number is about 47 institutes .

Second : private institutions in education in higher education :

 Include these institutions , universities and institutes upper and middle and accept students Egyptians and expatriates after obtaining a certificate of secondary general or the equivalent is divided into :

1- Private universities .

2- Foreign universities .

3- Open university education .

 Private universities :

Issued Law No. 101 of 1992 to establish universities own namely :

University of 6 October and the University of 6 October Science Modern and Arts, University of Egypt for Science and Technology, University of Egypt International .

Foreign universities :

The American University in Cairo, the French University , the German University , the British University , Senghor University in Alexandria , an international university for African development, and Senghor, a Senegalese writer and thinker .

Education universities and government free at all levels , but that some universities , government of through the establishment of branches in the departments of some colleges taught in English charge expenses are based on so that this type is that fit the needs of the market labor .

Third : Open university education :

The back of this type of education to the needs of the class of Egyptians who interrupted the march of education after the termination of a certificate of secondary public and joined the market to work or obtain a certificate of secondary general or technical since five years and then they wanted to pursue education university to improve levels of scientific and professional .

Universities respond to this . Alexandria University was among the first of these universities in 1991, then Cairo University , Assiut and Ain Shams University .

It is education where the use of multimedia educational and technological meetings with students at intervals spaced .  

It is through the presentation stage of the pre - school stage education primary and secondary education, both general and technical education university government and private not can to leave the system of education without talking about education adult .

Adult Education :

As a result of all the problems that faced the system of education it was to be the introduction of systems learning new can to contribute in the face of some problems .

The education of adult means : a group of programs and activities , whatever the level or content or the way that offers them both were regular or non - regular, irrespective matter of duration which offer according to the needs of adults and the requirements of their society so as to enrich their knowledge and their knowledge and help them on the composition of the skills of new and improve their qualifications for themselves and society , which live in it .

The education of adults has a number of areas are :

* Erase Illiteracy : The person illiterate as defined by the law of the year 1991 is a non - skilled team dyslexia did not receive a certificate of education primary in the category age 15 up to 30 years .

Continuing education : follow these institutions to those cut off from education because of or another and allow institutions of education formal opportunities to continue education regardless matter of age and without conditions Cathal school night programs and education university open .

* Free studies : for those who wish to increase their knowledge of a subject or skill, including the Center for Computer and Languages Education .

* Rehabilitation and training : Here is a difference between Monday, the former means the rehabilitation of individuals to work again did Aahluwa him from before , while training to raise the level of the individual in the same specialization and examples centers , training of vocational, departments training ministries and universities .

 * Preparation leadership : Due to the sensitivity and seriousness of these positions was to be the existence of programs of special and exemplified by the centers as - consulting centers and the preparation of leaders .

 After : must and recognize that the society of Egypt lacks a culture of research and scientific and that there are a lot of problems , educational or at all stages of education as a result of changes rapidly in the world whole . If change or modify at any stage does not appear easily so it must take into account that with the introduction of the methods of scientific modern knowledge New .